SDR '11 Tutorials
Tuesday, Nov. 29, 10 a.m.
Tuesday, Nov. 29, 3:15 p.m.
Wednesday, Nov. 30, 9:50 a.m.
Wednesday, Nov. 30, 1:50 p.m.
Thursday, Dec. 1, 9:50 a.m.
Thursday, Dec. 1, 1:50 p.m.
Thursday, Dec. 1, 8:30 a.m.
Tutorial 1A: Next Generation White Nail Architecture for Future Cognitive Radio Transmitter and Receiver Systems - Donald Steinbrecher (Navy, USA)
Recent test results and future performance predictions for White Nail systems that provide a digital interface for wireless propagation Previous White Nail presentations have focused on the fundamental performance limits for developing digital images of wideband high dynamic range propagating RF signals and on the innovative evolution from those limits to the demonstration of new functionality that enables cognitive radio personality for signals intercept systems. In summary, the White Nail architecture is designed to exhibit adequate signal dynamic range for full-bandwidth operation of high-performance ADCs over frequency ranges greater than 20:1 and this performance is consistent with that predicted by the applicable fundamental limits. This presentation will focus on two additional aspects of the White Nail architecture: 1) power efficient transmission of digitally synthesized waveforms and 2) a design for manufacturing that reduces the White Nail architecture to a highly simplified physical configuration. 1) Power efficient transmission results from the observation that the White Nail architecture can be configured to emulate a DAC with spatially combined VLSBs. Predicted DC to EIRP efficiencies greater than 80% can be substantiated by measured performance. A White Nail transmitter with EIRP > 10-kW can be configured using a basic 2-Watt amplifier designed for GSM hand-held phone applications that has a power added efficiency greater than 50%.. 2) Design for open manufacturing is currently underway. The latest manufacturing design comprises a plurality of five distinct parts, each of which is configured for direct SolidWorks-to-CNC adaptation. Only one part determines the signal functionality of the White Nail air interface and this part is designed to be manufactured to a specification that can be met by multiple vendors. Further, the part is designed to minimize development costs and to allow flexibility in setting performance objectives.
Tutorial 1B: Design and Application of a Hilbert Transformer in a Digital Receiver - Matt Carrick (Northrop Grumman, USA); Doug Jaeger (Northrop Grumman, USA); frederick j harris (San Diego State Univ, USA)
A common method of down converting a signal from an intermediate frequency (IF) to baseband is using a quadrature down-converter. One problem with the quadrature down-converter is it requires two low pass filters; one for the real branch and one for the imaginary branch. A more efficient way is to transform the real signal to a complex signal and then complex heterodyne the resultant signal to baseband. The transformation of a real signal to a complex signal can be done using a Hilbert transform. Building a Hilbert transform directly from its sampled data sequence produces suboptimal results due to time series truncation; another method is building a Hilbert transformer by synthesizing the filter coefficients from half band filter coefficients. Designing the Hilbert transform filter using a half band filter allows for a much more structured design process as well as greatly improved results.
Tutorial 1C: Prototype Implementation of a Realtime 8x8 MIMO LTE-Advanced Downlink - Ian C. Wong (National Instruments, USA)
The constantly rising demand for mobile multimedia services have driven the cellular industry to further push the envelope in the achievable spectral efficiency of the wireless link. In the 3GPP body, LTE-Advanced promises up to 30 bps/Hz in spectral efficiency through 8-layer spatial multiplexing, and combined with up to 5 x 20 MHz carrier aggregation, promises downlink bit rates of up to 3 Gbps. In this presentation, we will showcase what we believe to be the world's first real-time prototype implementation of an 8x8 MIMO LTE-Advanced physical layer. Our hardware platform is composed of a high performance multicore processor running a realtime OS, multiple FPGAs communicating with each other through PCI express, and tightly integrated RF front ends in two 17-slot 3U chassis. This high-performance platform, coupled with a high-level algorithm development environment that allows synthesis of optimized FPGA code, allowed a small team of communications and signal processing algorithm engineers to prototype a complex high-performance wireless system in a matter of a few months. We will elaborate on the implementation details of the most challenging blocks in the signal processing chain, and show a demonstration of the system and the tools in action.
Tutorial 2A: RF, ADC, & IF Design Techniques
Part 1: RF System Aspects for SDR -- A Tutorial, Present by Dr. Ruediger Leschhorn of Rohde and Schwarz
This tutorial will present an introduction to RF System aspects of Software Defined Radio, covering topics that include: Link budget, cosite issues on ships/aircraft/land vehicles, sensitivity, desensitation, intermodulation, reciprocal mixing, backdoor intermodulation, transmitter phase noise and dynamic range.
Part 2: The ADCs of SDR Presented by Tudor Davies of Spectrum Signal Processing and Mark Rives of Intersil
Software Defined Radio (SDR) can benefit from the technological advances happening in the Analog-to-Digital functionality of a radio. This tutorial will examine:
- How ADC parameters impact your SDR system design
- Benefits and trade-offs when selecting your ADC
- Design considerations and challenges for small form factor applications
- Real world implementations
Tutorial 3E: Advanced OSSIE SCA-Based SDR, a Hands-on Tutorial: Digital Waveforms, Interactive and Automatic Configuration and Control - Carl B. Dietrich (Virginia Tech & Wireless @ Virginia Tech, USA); Frank Kragh (Naval Postgraduate School, USA); Donna Miller (Naval Postgraduate School, USA)
This hands-on tutorial introduces easy-to-use, open-source tools for rapid prototyping, execution, and automated or interactive control of SCA-based SDR waveform applications. After running provided example applications, participants will use the tools to develop a digital communications waveform that can run either under software control or using an interactive user interface. The session assumes familiarity with basic SDR concepts and presents a brief overview of the Software Communications Architecture (SCA). OSSIE, Virginia Tech's open source implementation based on the SCA, is introduced through hands-on activities developed by the Naval Postgraduate School and Virginia Tech that include execution and configuration of provided waveform applications and multiple ways of controlling and configuring waveform applications. Lab materials as well as the OSSIE core framework and associated rapid development and application software are provided to participants and are also available for free download.
Tutorial 4E: SCA-Next: Benefits and Impacts in Migrating to a New Architectural Paradigm - Vincent J Kovarik, Jr (Prismtech, USA); Mike Williams (Prismtech, Canada)
Planned for release in late 2011 with early implementations in 2012, the SCA-Next specification is the next iteration of the SCA standard and will have a number of new features, options and choices that allow developers to optimize the version for a particular radio platform. The organization of the SCA-Next specification follows the Platform Independent Model (PIM) and Platform Specific Model (PSM) approach as described by the Model Driven Approach (MDA) developed by the Object Management Group (OMG). While the SCA-Next specification provides an approach for multiple platform optimizations, CORBA alternatives and implementation languages, among others, it also poses several significant issues and changes in the underlying core framework implementation, development tools, middleware and, perhaps most significantly, testing and validation. This tutorial will assist radio developers in planning for the introduction of SCA-Next into their development projects. It will introduce the changes planned to the SCA specific Tools, Frameworks, and Middleware that will facilitate the adoption of SCA-Next. Topics will include: summary of the changes from SCA 2.2/2.2.2 to SCA-Next; the impact of these changes on developers; recommendations for designing to the SCA-Next standard; migrating existing designs from 2.2/2.2.2 to SCA-Next; demonstrations of new SCA-Next specific extensions to the development tools; integrating with SCA-Next compliant frameworks and middleware; and approaches to testing and certification of a standard that may vary across radios.
Tutorial 4F: LTE Network for Nationwide Broadband Public Safety Communications - Fanny Mlinarsky (octoScope, USA)
Spectrum in the 700 MHz band has recently been licensed by the FCC to carry a nationwide public safety broadband network. In July of 2009 the 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) was selected as the next generation technology for public safety communications. Because the initial thrust of LTE has been on data services, voice over LTE is still in its infancy. Furthermore, the emerging voice over LTE solutions focus on commercial voice services over cellular networks. Public safety, on the other hand, has additional mission critical requirements for voice, beyond those of traditional cellular services. This tutorial will cover the basics of LTE technology and standards, including PHY, MAC and higher layers. We will discuss possible voice over LTE solutions and analyze their shortcomings with respect to the stringent requirements of public safety. The tutorial will also review LTE certification process and issues specifically related to interworking the existing public safety technologies, such as P25 and LMR. We will cover the handset and infrastructure components of the broadband public safety architecture.
Tutorial 5F: Cyber Warfare in the Wireless World: What You Don't Know CAN Hurt You - Dane Brown (United States Naval Academy, USA); Owens Walker (United States Naval Academy, USA); Christopher R. Anderson (United States Naval Academy, USA)
What is Cyber Security, why is it suddenly garnering so much attention, and when someone brings up Cyber Security, what exactly do they mean? The Department of Defense groups Cyber Security, Cyber Crime, and Cyber Attack into a broader concept known as Cyber Warfare; it defines Cyber Warfare as the integrated employment of the core capabilities of electronic warfare, computer network operations, psychological operations, military deception, and operations security-in concert with specified supporting and related capabilities-to influence, disrupt, corrupt, or usurp adversarial human and automated decision making while protecting our own. In order to effectively educate the next generation of technical professionals on this topic, it is imperative to have a firm understanding of what Cyber Security encompasses and why there is a compelling need for multidisciplinary research in this field. A common misconception about Cyber Security is that it is solely a Computer Science problem. Hackers, botnets, and buffer overflows dominate the headlines, however, much more is involved behind the scenes. Often neglected are the improvements that can be made at the levels of the underlying hardware, communication media, and end user knowledge. At the hardware level, devices are still designed to communicate on a set of protocols that have been used for several decades. At the level of communication media, data can be transmitted via a hard-wired link or wireless means. These media and protocols are robust, effective, and efficient at communication, but were not designed to be secure. Finally, user knowledge is a major key to ensuring secure communications. In many scenarios, methods have been developed to send and receive data privately. However, despite aggressive public service announcements, the typical user remains uneducated about these methods or even why it is important to put them into practice. It is expected that as technology progresses, electronic communications will become increasingly integrated into end-user products, with ease-of-use as a major design criteria. As a result, cutting edge technology often maximizes speed by foregoing cumbersome encryption and defaults to settings which make it easier for end users to function, rather than providing a reasonable level of information assurance. This tutorial begins by delineating the current Cyber Security landscape while highlighting many of the key players and terms pertaining to Cyber Security with which users and researchers must become familiar. It then describes the current state of vulnerabilities and attacks against common wireless communication protocols to include Bluetooth, RFID, 802.11, and 3G/4G cellular as well as defensive countermeasures that users can take. This tutorial explores several case studies of exploits targeting some of these well-known vulnerabilities. The objective is to examine what is understood to date with respect to Cyber Security and what open research questions still need to be answered. There is much still to be done to develop a framework for ensuring secure communications. Presenters include civilian and military faculty from the U.S. Naval Academy.
Tutorial 6F: Software Communications Architecture "Next" Release - Gerald Bickle (Raytheon Company, USA); Charles Linn (Harris Corporation, USA)
This tutorial provides an overview of and preliminary set of lessons learned from the recently released draft version of the Joint Program Executive Office Software Communications Architecture (SCA) Next specification, which is expected to be finalized later this year. The tutorial will describe the key enhancements and changes to the SCA. Topics to be described are: 1. SCA Profiles: Lightweight, Medium, and Full profiles along with optional Units of Functionality (UOFs). a. CF IDL Break out b. Domain Manager c. Device Manager 2. Light Weight applications and platform Components a. Resource IDL b. Device IDL c. Loadable Device IDL d. Executable Device IDL 3. CORBA Neutral Technology 4. Deployment Optimizations a. Static versus Dynamic Registration b. Push Model Registration 5. Application Enhancements a. Nested Applications b. Inter-Applications Connectivity 6. Lightweight Application Environment Profiles The tutorial will also have case studies on SCA "Next" implementations and contrasting that to SCA 2.2.2 implementations. The tutorial will be given by various Joint Tactical Radio System contractors and/or commercial companies.
Tutorial 7E: A Rapid Graphical Programming Approach to SDR Design & Prototyping with LabVIEW and the Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP) - Sam Shearman (National Instruments, USA)
The Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP) has proven a popular hardware platform for host-based software defined radio prototyping with GNURadio. While the approach is popular, the learning curve associated with Linux, GNURadio, Python, and C++ can be challenging for some potential users. To improve ease-of-use and enable the platform for a broader set of users, National Instruments has recently released support for the USRP hardware to Microsoft Windows and the LabVIEW graphical programming environment. This session will show how you can design and prototype communications algorithms with LabVIEW in Windows. Live demonstrations will show how you can define a custom communication protocol using LabVIEW-based graphical programming and establish a live digital link between two USRPs.